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Word Count: 608
The term traditional refers to backward-looking and undynamic society Some factors that contributed to the traditional society are mainly dominated by religious authority it has a few controls on arbitrary political authority The public education system is tuition-free and attendance is mandatory from ages 6 to 14 In practice however many children drop out before age 15 and in rural areas only about one-third complete sixth grade The government is striving to create better programs for the rural and urban poor especially in technical and occupational training In recent years it has also been successful in reducing illiteracy Enrollment in primary schools has been increasing at an annual rate of 44--faster than the population growth rate According to the 1979 constitution the central government must allocate at least 30 of its revenue to education in practice however it allots a much smaller percentage Public universities have an open admissions policy In recent years however large increases in the student population budget difficulties and extreme politicization of the university system have led to a decline in academic standards Advanced indigenous cultures flourished in Ecuador long before the area was conquered by the Inca empire in the 15th century In 1534 the Spanish arrived and defeated the Inca armies and Spanish colonists became the new elite The indigenous population was decimated by disease in the first decades of Spanish rule--a time when the natives were also forced into the encomienda labor system for Spanish landlords In 1563 Quito became the seat of a royal audiencia administrative district of Spain After independence forces defeated the royalist army in 1822 Ecuador joined Simon Bolivars Republic of Gran Colombia only to become a separate republic in 1830 The 19th century was marked by instability with a rapid succession of rulers The conservative Gabriel Garcia Moreno unified the country in the
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