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Racism is engrained in the subconsciousness of people and society atlarge UCLA School of Public Affairs recognizes that The individualracist need not exist to note that institutional racism is pervasive inthe dominant culture This is the analytical lens that Critical RaceTheory uses in examining existing power structure Ian Haney Lopezuses similar analytical approach and examines how one can be recognizedas a white person through the power structure of the legal systemHe also extensively defines and explains how is race constructed inthe legal process He acknowledges the contradiction in the courtsrulings for the racial prerequisite cases from 1878 through 1952Throughout the text Lopez has defined race multiple times due tocommon misconceptions In preface he explains that race are notbiologically differentiated groups but rather social constructionsLopez emphasizes that a persons ancestry does not account all therelevant characteristics of race because it is shaped by classreligion nationality gender sexual identity and so on In 1790Congress restricted to only grant citizenship to white personhowever the court did not elaborate on the characteristics of a whiteperson The term race is significant in which the naturalizationof immigrants was depended on how the court interpreted the concept ofwhite identityThis troubling racial ideology has led to openinterpretations by the court Lopez examines legal construction of race during the period before theCivil Rights Movement in which white supremacy was ubiquitously evidentacross the country His principle argument is racism persists incontemporary society because people exploit racial hierarchy and putthemselves in a more desirable position Lopez states Race and Racismare centrally about seeking or contesting power remain vibranttoday only because racial hierarchy remains in the material interest ofmany in our society xvii In his earlier analysis of theprerequisite cases Lopez does not take into account of how the courtsrulings were associated with the contest for power but he highlightshow the court rationed their decisions using two methods- scientificevidence and common knowledge Lopez seems to deviate from his keyargument that is presented in
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