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Jack London was born John Griffiths Chaney and changed his name for unknown reasons He was born on January 12 1876 in San Francisco His mother Flora Wellman was unmarried and of wealthy background His father may have been William Chaney Chaney was a journalist lawyer and a major figure in the development of American astrology During his childhood his parents werent there for him and he was looked after by an ex-slave Virginia Prentiss Memmie Jennie London dropped out of school at the age of fourteen and worked at a series of low-paying sweatshops until he was sixteen In 1894 during Americas worst depression of his time London traveled across the United States and Canada on railroads He was arrested in 1894 in Niagara Falls and jailed for vagrancy As an adolescent he worked at various hard labor jobs pirated for oysters served as a fish patrol to capture poachers sailed the Pacific on a sealing ship joined Kellys Army of unemployed working men and returned to attend high school University of California at Berkeley is where London went when he went back Jack started to become a writer to escape from the horrific prospects of life as a factory worker He studied other writers and began to submit stories jokes and poems to various publications mostly without success These writers he studied were Karl Marx Charles Darwin Rudyard Kipling Herbert Spencer Friedrich Nietzsche and Karl Jung London went to the Klondike for hopes of digging up gold in 1897 The attempt to find gold was unsuccessful The winter of 1897 provided the metaphorical gold for his first stories From that point he was a highly disciplined writer who wrote over fifty volumes of stories novels and political essays London also spent the winter suffering from scurvy and later returned to San Francisco in the spring In 1899 London was starting to make headway in the publishing world despite more than 250 rejections a
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