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Introduction Lawrence Kholberg spent many years researching how individuals develop their own moral codes For nearly thirty years he has amplified his Cognitive-Developmental theory of moralisation which has now become prominent in the field of moral development and its application to moral education Kohlberg proposed that moral difficulties motivated their own development through a fixed sequence of increasingly adaptable kinds of moral reasoning He conducted most of his work at Harvard University and developed his stage model in 1969 Working through the 1950s and 60s using longitudinal and cross sectional studies he proposed 6 stages of development see Appendix 1 identified through the responses of children presented with moral dilemmas Piaget his former tutor proposed only 2 stages of moral development these being the Hetronomous and Autonomous stages He was not so much interested in the judgments made but the reasons for the judgment differing from Piaget he saw the stages as part of cognitive development He was interested in how people think rather than what they think These reasons represent to Kohlberg the structure of judgment centering around 10 universal moral issues or values Piaget believed autonomous moral reasoning to occur between ages 10-12 whereas Kohlberg proposes adolescence or even adulthood These values are punishment property and law roles and concerns of affection roles and concerns of authority life liberty justice truth and sex From its earliest transmission Kohlberg has not been without critics Although his work is of unquestionable importance Peters 1971 warned There is a grave danger that they Kohlbergs findings may become exhalted into a general theory of moral development may be seen by some to have been fulfilled Although Kohlbergs work is vast the following will look at universality briefly at gender and morality and following this methodology Kohlbergs Universality The biggest challenge for Kohlbergs theory is to explain how the process of self-creation and mental structures can
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