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Oliver Otis Howard was born in Maine November 1830 Howard received his education at Bowdoin College In the mid-1850s he attended West Point where he became a professor in mathematics from 1857 to 1861 At the point of switching his career and becoming a minister the Civil War erupted and Howard resigned his regular army commission and became a colonel of the Third Maine Volunteers of the Union army During the war he took part in the First Bull Run where severe wounds forced the amputation of his right arm In battle Howard was a moral crusader as much as a warrior he insisted that his troops attend prayer and temperance meetings Later promoted to major general in the regular army With this new position Howard quickly earned the contempt of white Southerners and many Northerners for his unapologetic not sorry support of black suffrage and his efforts to distribute land to African Americans and he even championed freedom and equality for former slaves in his private life He also succeeded in providing greatly needed food and medical and employment aid to millions of people Working to make his elite Washington DC church racially integrated and by helping to found an all-black college in the District of Columbia which was soon named Howard University in his honor He later served as a superintendent from 1880-82 of West Point and founded the Lincoln Memorial University 1895 in Harrogate Tennessee In his later years and after his retirement from the army in 1894 he wrote several books on military and Indian affairs including Nez Perce Joseph 1881 Autobiography 1907 My life and Experiences Among Hostile Indians 1907 and Famous Indian Chiefs I Have Known 1908 In the year of 1909 Oliver Otis Howard past to the next life
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