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Word Count: 736
Plato is considered one of the greatest philosophers in history After Socrates death in 399 Plato devoted his life to philosophy and the pursuit of the perfect state In his book The Republic Plato focuses on trying to define what justice is This leads to Plato outlining his ideas on the perfect state He outlines a society split into three distinct groups the governors soldiers and producers who are all working at their highest ability level By working at their highest ability level all three groups are achieving arte in their own fields Arte is the ability of a thing to do whatever it is best at and the arte of the soul is to live and be happy As he tries to define justice Plato often uses the concept of arte Thrasymachus says that justice is simply what the ruling party calls right or just might makes right Socrates responds by saying that the rulers should only be regarded by how well they perform their function and their function is to serve the interests of their constituency Socrates says that everything has a function the function of a pruning knife is to prune trees the function of the eye is to see He says but you can cut off a vine branch with a dagger or a chisel and in many other waysand yet not so well as with a pruning knife Bk1 Ln353 The function of man is to live and be happy and therefore justice must be present to make people happy Without justice a man cannot be happy Without even using the word arte he has just defined it If the soul is living and happy then it has achieved arte but without justice arte cannot be achieved Platos suggested society makes everyone achieve arte When trying to organize his state Socrates describes what the state will need in order to be just He says that each man will be
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