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Hannibal In 237 BC Hamilcar Barca took his nine year old son Hannibal to the alter of a Carthaginian god and made him swear that he would always be an enemy to the Romans Hannibal and his father then left for Spain The center of Carthaginian power in Spain was the city of New Carthagemodern Carthagena Hannibal saw firsthand his fathers techniques for war Green 9 When Hamilcar died in battle in 230 BC his son-in-law Hasdrubal became general and continued Carthages influence in Spain In 226 BC Hasdrubal signed a treaty with the Romans The treaty stated that neither army could cross the Ebro River in northern Spain Charles-Picard 11 When Hasdrubal was killed in 221 BC the Carthaginians unanimously elected twenty-six-year-old Hannibal to be commander of the army in Spain He continued to conquer land without crossing the Ebro River except for the city of Saguntum an ally of Rome When Saguntum began trouble between Carthage and Rome in 219 BC Hannibal raided the city This began the Second Punic War Hannibal began a long and dangerous journey with battle elephants marching at the front of his army Green 21 Hannibal left a lasting reminder of his deeds in the names of Spanish places such as Potus Hannibalis Insula Hannabalis and Scalae Hannibalis Lancel 12 In the spring of 218 BC Hannibal handed over command of the Spanish armies to his brother Hasdrubal He then led his troops north toward the Pyrenees Mountains and began one of the most famous journeys in history Green 24 Hannibals army included Libyans and Numidians from North Africa Iberians and Celtiberians from Spain and Gauls from Spain France and ItalyThere were ninety thousand foot soldiers twelve thousand horsemen and several dozen war elephants Hannibal used the elephants to break infantry lines and to create fear and disorder The elephants also frightened horses so they were able to disrupt the enemys cavalry Green 25
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