scroll to top
Stuck on your essay?
Get ideas from this essay and see how your work stacks up
Word Count: 511
ENERGETCS OF BIPEDAL RUNNING 1 METABOLIC COST OF GENERATING FORCE Summary Similarly sized bipeds and quadrupeds use nearly the same amount of metabolic energy to run despite dramatic differences in morphology and running mechanics It has been shown that the rate of metabolic energy use in quadrupedal runners and bipedal hoppers can be predicted from just body weight and time available to generate force as indicated by the foot ground contact We tested whether this link between running mechanics and energetics also applied to running bipeds We measured rates of energy consumption and times of foot contact for humans mean body mass 7888kg and five species of bird mean body mass 013-401 kg We find that most 70-90 of the increase in metabolic rate with speed in running bipeds can be explained by changes in the time available to generate force The rate of force generation also explains differences in metabolic rate over the size range of birds measured However for a given rate of force generation birds use on average 17 times more metabolic energy than quadrupeds The rate of energy consumption for a given rate of force generation for humans is intermediate between that of birds and quadrupeds These results support the idea that the costs of muscular force production determines the energy cost of running and suggest that bipedal runners use more energy for a given rate of force production because they require a greater volume of muscle to support their body weight Key words locomotion energetics bipedal bird muscle force Introduction The question of wither more energy is required to run on two or four legs was addressed 100 years ago when Zuntz 1897 performed some of the first measurements of metabolic energy consumption in running animals He found that horses used less energy than humans to move a unit body weight a unit distance and he speculated that there
@Kibin is a lifesaver for my essay right now!!
- Sandra Slivka, student @ UC Berkeley
Wow, this is the best essay help I've ever received!
- Camvu Pham, student @ U of M
If I'd known about @Kibin in college, I would have gotten much more sleep
- Jen Soust, alumni @ UCLA