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Word Count: 1,282
In the Darls reading the most powerful cause of transformation is the shift in its center from the city state to the current national state He explains the consequences of the enormous increase in scale First the representatives have largely displaced the citizens assembly of ancient democracy It is an application of the logic of equality to a large-scale political system which is occurred by government officials with making existing legislatures more representative by broadening the franchise adopting an electoral system and ensuring that election were free and fairly conducted He said that it resulted from specific and successive modifications of already existing political institutions Also author strongly support that even if large-scale democracy lacks some of the potentialities of small-scale democracy to apply the logic of political equality on the large scale of the national state the direct democracy of citizen assemblies had to be replaced In this replacement the natural consequences which are diversity and the accompanying conflicts are made He mentioned that with increasingly large number of population only the representative government so called polyarchy can successfully performs its role with inclusive electorates to deal with these consequences In explaining the rise of polyarchy he claims that most distinctive difference between polyarchy and other political system is the expansion of individual right and right to oppose Although one can see that extraordinary expansion of individual rights is caused by effects of size in fact the greater scale stimulates a concern for rights as alternatives to participation in collective decisions With social distances and anonymities personal rights attached to citizenship can ensure a sphere of personal freedom that participation in collective decisions cannot Moreover the polyarchy extended citizenship to the extent of right to oppose He claims that opposition is a key factor which distinguish polyarchy from regimes in which citizenship doesnt include right to oppose and vote out the government He then moves on to the presence of seven institution of polyarchy
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