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typewriter Noiseless typewriters The noiseless linkage is a variation of the conventional typebar linkage causing the typebar to strike the platen at a lower velocity but with the same momentum Although it produces less noise than the conventional typewriter the noiseless typewriter cannot produce as fine an impression or as many carbon copies Electric typewriters A significant advance in the typewriter field was the development of the electric typewriter basically a mechanical typewriter with the typing stroke powered by an electric-motor drive The typist initiates the key stroke the carriage motion and other controls by touching the proper key The actuation is performed by the proper linkage clutching to a constantly rotating drive shaft Advantages of this system include lighter touch faster and more uniform typing more legible and numerous carbon copies and less operator fatigue Especially valuable as an office machine capable of a high volume of output electric typewriters are produced by all major typewriter manufacturers The first electrically operated typewriter consisting of a printing wheel was invented by Thomas A Edison in 1872 and later developed into the ticker-tape printer The electric typewriter as an office writing machine was pioneered by James Smathers in 1920 In 1961 the first commercially successful typewriter based on a spherical type-carrier design was introduced by the International Business Machines Corporation The sphere-shaped typing element moves across the paper tilting and rotating as the desired character or symbol is selected The motion of the element from left to right eliminates the need for a movable paper carriage Portable typewriters The early portables of the late 19th century were slow awkward type-wheel machines In 1909 the first successful portables appeared on the market By the 1950s practically every typewriter manufacturer produced a portable typewriter all of them were typebar machines similar in operation to the office machines Designed with lighter parts than those of standard models portables
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