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Word Count: 627
Towards the end of the 19th century scientists were attempting to send messages over distances without wires They were not searching for a means of mass-communication but simply exploring the possibility of using electromagnetic waves in order to communicate between two fixed points There in no single inventor of radio it came from several international developments The pioneers of radio studied the work of a British physicist James Clerk Maxwell who published his theory of electromagnetic waves in 1873 It was the German physicist Heinrich Rudolf Hertz who first generated such waves electrically Although the waves he came up with were unable to travel large distances It was an Italian electrician and inventor Guglielmo Marconi who succeeded in developing both a suitable receiver and an improved spark oscillator which was connected to an effective antenna to transmit radio waves over significant distances In 1896 Marconi transmitted signals for a distance greater than 16 km Within a year of his first demonstration he transmitted signals from shore to a ship at sea 29 km away In 1899 he established commercial communication between England and France and in 1901 he succeeded in sending a simple message across the Atlantic This was still only wireless transmission of signals rather than wireless transmission of sound itself On Christmas Eve in 1906 an American Reginald Fessenden managed to transmit speech and music over several hundred miles out to sea Over the next few years other demonstrations followed in the United States Britain and EuropeThe combination of continuous signals being sent out from transmitters and more sensitive receivers laid the technical basis for more wide-scale listening but there was in the years still little appreciation of the mediums social possibilities Radio was thought of private means of point-to-point communication rather than public means of mass communicationThe first significant users of radio coastal marine army and intelligence services were however content with this approach Both British and Germans using radio to communicate
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