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The Babylonians lived in the area where the Tigris and Euphrates rivers emptied into the Persian gulf Before the rise of this civilization this area was dominated by two groups the Sumerians and Akkadians Because of this the pre-babylonian area was normally referred to as Summer-Akkad Thanks to the areas rich Mineral resources predominately salt and many trade routes this area suffered almost constant attack from outside forces Eventually the outsiders succeeded Semitic Amorites from the Arabian peninsula gained control over most of the region by 1900 BC They organized a central monarchical government in what was now called Babylon formally known as Akkad the capitol of Sumer-Akkad This event began three centuries of Amoritic rule known as the Old Babylonian period The central power of Babylon was a monarch who had complete control over the land Like many civilizations over the age the subjects of Babylon believed that the king ruled by divine right Furthermore they believed that the king was one of their many gods To magnify his control and power a bureaucracy and centralized government were established Together the king and his officials exerted total control over the large land mass that they controlled The Sumerians already had laws but they were executed by both the state and individuals The monarchs began to rule and set their own laws which were now not only an offense to the state but also an offense to the gods Finally one of the monarchs Hammurabi wrote a new set of laws which the state could perform themselves The new Code of Hammurabi became famous for being one of the first written collections of law and for its fair treatment with its famous clause lex talionis Babylonia and 94 or an eye for an eye Through his written code of laws his cultural influence and several wars Hammurabi and following monarchs expanded the empire north and south taking over the Assyrians and remaining Summer-Akkadians Trade also
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