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Word Count: 526
WATER TURNS TO ICE Water is perhaps the most abundant liquid known to man It is needed to sustain the lives of all living things and covers nearly three quarters of the earths surface It is a molecule made up of two hydrogen atoms and one oxygen atom H O Both hydrogens are bonded to the one oxygen atom covalently At room temperature it is a liquid At temperatures of over 100C it is a vapour or gas better known as steam This is the form in which water and indeed any other molecule or element Has the most kinetic energy the molecules move quickly and they are completely separated from each other As the gas cools to a temperature of 100C it begins to condense That is the molecules lose some of their kinetic energy and move more slowly giving out heat The molecules continue losing energy at 100C until the substance is completely a liquid Some molecules at the surface of the liquid will still have enough enery to break free from the liquid and become gaseous This is evapouration An inter-molecular bond known as a hydrogen bond H-bond forms between some of the molecules in the liquid It holds many of the molecules in this state together the bonds regularly break and reform so that the water molecules move around each other These hydrogen bonds are individually very weak They are much weaker than the intra-molecular bond that is the covalent bonds between the oxygen and the Hydrogen atoms However when large numbers of them form together as in water they have a much stronger effect on the properties of the whole substance This is why such a light molecule ieit has a small relative molecular mass of 18 which would be expected to be a gas at room temperature is in facta liquid at room temperature and pressure An H-bond forms between an electronegative
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