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1 In 1945 Western Europe appeared to have destroyed itself physically economically and psychologically Carefully distinguish and give appropriate weight to the reasons why it was able in less than twenty years to rise like a phoenix from the ashes First and foremost a great deal of Europes success would not have happened without its initial aid from the United States After helping destroy so much of the continent the US pumped billions and billions of dollars back into the European economy through The Marshall Plan It was named after Secretary of State George C Marshall who said The world of suffering people looks to us for leadership Their thoughts however are not concentrated alone on this problem They have more immediate and terribly pressing concerns where the mouthful of food will come from where they will find shelter tonight and where they will find warmth Along with the great problem of maintaining the peace we must solve the problem of the pittance of food of clothing and coal and homes Neither of these problems can be solved alone DeLong In the first two post-World War II years the US contributed through this plan about four billion dollars a year to relief and reconstruction The Marshall Plan continued these flows at comparable rates and was a multi-year commitment From 1948 to 1951 the US contributed 132 billion to European recovery 32 billion went to the United Kingdom 27 billion to France 15 billion to Italy and 14 billion to the Western-occupied zones of Germany DeLong An astounding 155 billion had been provided to Europe before the Marshall plan was enacted Wegs 66 The availability of Marshall Plan aid gave European countries a pool of resources that could be used to cushion the wealth losses sustained in restructuring Countries that received large amounts of money from the Marshall Plan invested more Countries could buy the amounts of coal cotton and petroleum needed all of
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