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Psychology is the scientific study of the mind and its functions During the twentieth century the main question was whether psychology should base its research and practice on conscious experience or should it only study observable overt behavior Behaviorism studied behavior directly Behaviorists used non-human animals to avoid introspection Unlike the functionalist view the psychoanalytic view focuses on the conscious and unconscious and how the treatment is based on unobservable factors Their practices were heavily based on introspection which helped with the treatment processJohn B Watson was a behaviorist who considered psychology as an objective natural science and his goal was to predict and control behavior In order to do so Watson based his work on Stimulus-Response Psychology This type of psychology only looks at the relationship between the stimulus and the response Watson was able to manipulate a certain stimulus and see what the resulting behavior would be He mainly used rats for his studies The use of rats avoids the need for introspection because there is no way of communicating with them Watson was able to measure behavioral responses with out ever having to look at cognitive processes or emotions By only focusing on behavior Watson was only capable of predicting cause and effect Instead of only looking at stimuli and responses Psychoanalysts observed and worked with cognitive processes and emotions Sigmund Freud applied his work to conscious and cognitive processes Freud used free association when he worked with Hysteria patients This helped release repressed thoughts that were causing physical symptoms such as blindness Free association allowed the patient to talk and ramble on until he or she hopefully revealed an experience or thought that caused the hysteria Freud was studying the mind and how the conscious and unconscious works with the relation of hysteria Freud also believed the early experiences explained certain behaviors He explained that everyone goes through stages psychosexual in their earlier years If they successfully go through each stage
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