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The roots of Indian civilization stretch back in time to pre-recorded history The earliest human activity in the Indian sub-continent can be traced back to the Early Middle and Late Stone Ages 400000-200000 BC The first evidence of agricultural settlements on the western plains of the Indus is roughly contemporaneous with similar developments in Egypt Mesopotamia and Persia This earliest known civilization in India the starting point in its history dates back to about 3000 BC Discovered in the 1920s it was thought to have been confined to the valley of the river Indus hence the name given to it was Indus Valley civilization This civilization was a highly developed urban one and two of its towns Mohenjodaro and Harappa represent the high watermark of the settlements The emergence of this civilization is as remarkable as its stability for nearly a thousand years All the cities were well planned and were built with baked bricks of the same size the streets were laid at right angles with an elaborate system of covered drains There was a fairly clear division of localities and houses were earmarked for the upper and lower strata of society There were also public buildings the most famous being the Great Bath at Mohenjodaro and the vast granaries Production of several metals such as copper bronze lead and tin was also undertaken and some remnants of furnaces provide evidence of this fact The discovery of kilns to make bricks support the fact that burnt bricks were used extensively in domestic and public buildings Evidence also points to the use of domesticated animals including camels goats water buffaloes and fowls Trade seemed to be a major activity at the Indus Valley and the sheer quantity of seals discovered suggest that each merchant or mercantile family owned its own seal These seals are in various quadrangular shapes and sizes each with a human or an animal figure carved on it Discoveries suggest that the
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