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Word Count: 925
What is a piezoelectric force transducer or sensor A transducer is a device that transmits power from one system to another In the case of the piezoelectric they power comes in the form of electricity from a piezoelectric material acted on Piezoelectricity may be described as the property of some materials that become electrically charged when subject to mechanical stress These special materials also show a similar effect by undergoing mechanical deformation due to the application of an electric field This effect was first discovered in 1880 in naturally occurring single crystals such as quartz The reason certain materials have piezoelectric effects is related to the lack of symmetry in the unit cell With the lack of symmetry electric dipoles form due to mechanical distortion Piezoelectric material characteristics depend on stress strain displacement and the applied electric field on the material Table 1 shows a summery of the basic parameters of a piezoelectric material Figure 1 Symbols and Terminology expands the basic parameters The materials direction of polarization is designated as the z-axis of an orthogonal crystallographic system The xyz axes are represented as 123 directions and the shear about these axes is represented as 456 The various piezoelectric material constants are expressed with subscripts The first subscript gives direction of the electric field associated with theapplied voltage or charge produced The second subscript gives direction of mechanical stress or strain The superscripts show a constant mechanical or electrical boundary condition Piezoelectric materials constant are important to know The density of the material effects is piezoelectric ability Another constant is known as Curie temperature The structure the material changes at Curie temperature from piezoelectric non-symmetrical to a non-piezoelectric symmetrical form Along with the phase change peak in the dielectric constant-temperature curve at that temperature The Curie temperature noted Tc is expressed in degrees Celsius The dielectric constant relative permittivity is defined as the ratio of the permittivity of the
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