scroll to top
Stuck on your essay?
Get ideas from this essay and see how your work stacks up
Word Count: 592
Cradled by the Euphrates and Tigris Rivers in what is today Iraq the Sumerians of Mesopatamia established the earliest known society in which people could read and write Although the Sumerians gift of writing made possible the recording of history Sumer itself was lost until a century ago when the translation of cunieform tablets revealed a civilization and a language quite unlike the Semitic tongues of the Babylonians and Assyrians The Sumerians came from the east or from the mountains of Elam perhaps as early as 5000 BC to the swamps at the head of the Persian Gulf They drained the swamps developed flood control invented the wheel and established a permanent agriculture As successful trade developed with the surrounding areas Sumerian villages and settlements grew into prosperous citystates such as Ur Eridu Lagash Nippur and Uruk It is theorized that writing evolved to keep track of property Clay envelopes marked with the owners rolled seal were used to hold tokens for goods the tokens within recording a specific transaction Later on the envelope and tokens were discarded and symbols scratched into clay recorded transactions such as 2 bunches of wheat or 7 cows As writing evolved pictures gave way to lines pressed into clay with a wedge tip This allowed a scribe to make many different types of strokes without changing his grip By 3000 BC the script evolved into a full syllabic alphabet Sumerian states were believed to be under the rule of a local god or goddess and a bureaucratic system of the priesthood arose to oversee the ritualistic and complex religion High Priests represented the gods on earth one of their jobs being to discern the divine will A favorite method of divination was reading sheep or goat entrails The priests ruled from their ziggurats high rising temples of sunbaked brick with outside staircases leading to the shrine on top The
@Kibin is a lifesaver for my essay right now!!
- Sandra Slivka, student @ UC Berkeley
Wow, this is the best essay help I've ever received!
- Camvu Pham, student @ U of M
If I'd known about @Kibin in college, I would have gotten much more sleep
- Jen Soust, alumni @ UCLA