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Carbohydrates and lipidsfats are a very important part of our lives They have many similarities and differences among each other which distinguish them from other macromolecules Carbohydrates which include sugar and their polymers are used by organisms for fuel and building material They come in many various forms going from simplicity to complexity The simplest monosaccharides compose of single sugars whose parts are arranged around asymmetric carbons They generally have a molecular formula that is a multiple of CH2O Glucose the most common monosaccharide is of central importance in the chemistry of life Energy is stored in glucose materials and extracts cells in the process of cellular respiration When two monosaccharides join by covalently bonding through glycosidic linkage they form a disaccharide or double sugar If more than two such as hundreds and thousands bond they form polysaccharides or macromolecules There are two main types of polysaccharides storage and structural Starch and glycogen are used for storage In plants starch is mainly used because if it is synthesized the plant can stock an abundance of sugar Starch can be found in wheat corn rice and other grains Glycogen on the other hand is more extensively branched therefore it is stored by humans and animals Cellulose and chitin are the structural polysaccharides Cellulose is a tough component of the walls in a plant cell Structure is important since thats what organisms build strong materials from In parallel cellulose molecules the cell wall of a plant is held together by bonds which are arranged in microfibrils These strong cables help build walls for plants and humans Chitin conversely mainly deals with strengthening the arthropods exoskeletons The one thing all lipids have in common is the fact that they are hydrophobic The three families of lipids are fats phospholipids steroids Glycerol a form of alcohol constructs fats when it is mixed with fatty acids who consist of a carboxyl group on one end and hydrocarbon on the other
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