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El Nio and La Nia are characterized by having unusually higher or lower ocean temperatures that have important consequences on weather around the world El Nio is a warm disruption of the ocean atmosphere in the tropical Pacific While La Nia is unusually cold temperatures in the Equatorial Pacific that inducts irregular temperatures Both have different consequences that effect our regular atmospheric conditions El Nio is known to increase precipitation in the Southern tier of the US and Peru This often causes devastating flooding drought in the West Pacific and is sometimes connected with Australia Causing brush fires In El Nio years temperatures in the winter are often warmer than usual in the North Central States and cooler than normal in the Southeast and Southwest A La Nia year causes winter temperatures in the Southeast to be warmer and cooler than normal in the Northwest The shift from El Nio conditions to La Nia and back again takes about four years Understanding this irregular oscillation and its consequences for global climate has become possible only in recent decades as scientists began to unravel the intricate relationship between ocean and atmosphere Although meteorologists have long been forecasting daily weather based on atmospheric measurements taken around the world they had relatively little information about conditions in many parts of the worlds oceans until the advent of arrays of fixed unmanned mid-ocean buoyswhich evaluates temperatures winds and currents in the equatorial band in the Pacific Ocean and orbiting satellites These are essential for the predictions of the climate variations The name El Nio is actually shorthand for what weather forcasters and scientists call the El Nio-Southern Oscillation or ENSO Although it is said to be spanish for the Christ child and that it originally came from the late 1800s from a fishermen along the coast of Peru He referred it to be a seasonal invasion of warm southward ocean current which it is not Its
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