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The ancient civilizations of the Nile Valley and Sumer are considered to be the beginning of life in their respected regions The following essay will provide a look into the similarities between these two great societies The Nile Valley civilization began as early as early as the Paleolithic Age and a Neolithic culture was formed there around 6000 BC By about 3800 BC the people of this region began to take steps toward creating an actual civilization The people discovered how to make copper tin and its alloy bronze The pottery wheel is believed to be a product of this era By about 3000 BC scientists believe the people began using hieroglyphics as a form of writing At first hieroglyphics were carved on slate and ivory but this was a long and strenuous process that required large amounts of time Then they discovered that they could use a plant that grew in the marshes called papyrus to write on Over the centuries strong leaders united to the regions into two kingdoms called Upper and Lower Egypt This was the first instance of government as the rulers of these two kingdoms were kings creating a monarchy Around 3100 BC the ruler Menes united the two kingdoms into one The people obeyed believing the rulers to be gods It is for this reason the pharaohs meaning great house served as judges high priests and generals in the armies The rulers still were required to look after the people as this was their duty and responsibility Menes established a dynasty for kings to come All in all there were approximately thirty dynasties that stretched throughout Egypts history The kingdoms in which these people ruled are divided into the Old Middle and New Kingdoms and then followed by the Late Period Farmland in Egypt was divided into large estates The farming was done mainly by peasants The crops the peasants harvested went almost all directly to the pharaoh for
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