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COMPARE NORMATIVE AND IMFORMATIONAL INFLUENCES ON SOCIETY Sources of influence can create normative andor informational influence Normative influence may create effects like brand-choice congruence conformity compliance and reactance Normative influence tends to be greater for products that are publicly consumed considered luxuries or regarded as a significant aspect of group membership Normative influence is also strong for individuals who tend to pay attention to social information Strong ties and the extent to which consumers identify with the group also increase the likelihood that consumers will succumb to normative influences Finally normative influence is greater when groups are large and cohesive when members are similar andor experts and when the group has the power to deliver rewards and sanctions Informational influence operates when individuals affect others by providing information Such information in turn may greatly affect consumers search and decision making Consumers are more likely to seek and follow informational influence when products are complex when product purchase or use is regarded as risky and when brands are distinctive The more the influencer is regarded as an expert the less the consumers knowledge and confidence and the more consumers are predisposed to listen to information from others the greater the informational influence Informational influence is also greater when groups are cohesive Social influence whether normative or informational varies in valence whether information is positive or negative and modality whether information is communicated verbally or non-verbally Negative information should be avoided as much as possible because it is communicated to more people and given greater weight in decision making than positive information Marketers are particularly interested in word-of-mouth WOM information-both positive and negative Strategies may be designed to identify target and reward individuals who serve as positive WOM referral sources Sources of negative information such as rumors might also be targeted Social psychologists have tried to observe what aspects or conditions of a situation leads an individual to become
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