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This 10-page paper discusses about plant defense mechanisms It consists of an abstract introduction mechanisms of defense against insects and pathogens disease resistance genes biotechnologies case studies and future research and practical applications Review of Plant Defense Mechanisms Abstract An imperiled plant is somewhat like a person It has to depend on the defense mechanisms both structural and metabolic to prevent harmful effects of the pathogens It includes preexisting defense structures surface waxes structure of epidermal cell walls position of stomata and lenticles thick cell walls leaf hairs defense structures formed in response to infection by the pathogen histological defense structures metabolic biochemical defense preexisting biochemical defense metabolic defense induced by the attacking pathogen defense through the hypersensitive reaction defense through increased levels of phenolic compounds common phenolics etc Plants also activate a specific set of defense genes in response to assault Recent technologies have enabled us to have plants with useful genes only thus providing better crops in larger number Unlike traditional plant breeding which involves the crossing of hundreds or thousands of genes plant biotechnology allows for the transfer of only one or a few desirable genes This more precise science allows plant breeders to develop crops with specific beneficial traits and without undesirable traits Many of these beneficial traits in new plant varieties fight plant pests -- insects disease and weeds -- that can be devastating to crops Others provide quality improvements such as tastier fruits and vegetables processing advantages such as tomatoes with higher solids content and nutrition enhancements such as oil seeds that produce oils with lower saturated fat content Introduction An imperiled plant is somewhat like a person It too relies on built-in safety mechanisms to ensure its well-being While it cant exactly flee an imminent threat - such as from disease-causing bacteria or a hungry insect - it can fight back First however the plant must know what it is up against The success
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