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Describe and critically assess research in to the effects of deprivation on the subsequent development of children Bowlby 1969 argued that maternal deprivation caused affectionless psychopathy the inability to form meaningful interpersonal relationships in later life However the link between affectionless psychopathy and bond disruption is not wholly supported by later studies Instead it seems Bowlbys definition of deprivation was too broader term with his hypothesis relating to privation instead Rutter 1970 split the term deprivation in to privation lack of an attachment figure from the outset and deprivation loss or separation from the attachment figure with whom a bond had been created Bowlby drew his conclusion from several of his own studies He looked at 44 juvenile delinquents 14 of whom had a guiltless ie affectionless character 9 of these 14 had experienced separation from their primary care giver in childhood whereas only 2 of his control group had However 14 out of 44 does not seem a sufficient enough number to prove his theory and it seems likely as Rutter suggests the delinquents had not suffered deprivation but privation Another of Bowlbys studies disproves his own theory of deprivation He observed 60 children aged 7 to 13 who had spent 5 months to 2 years in a TB sanatorium at various ages up to 4 Half had been separated from parents by age 2 The separated children were more prone to daydreaming were more over-excited concentrated less and were less competitive However overall they were more similar to ordinary children than different and did not show affectionless psychopathy regardless of when the separation occurred Numerous studies seem to suggest that deprivation need not have long-term effects Deprivation can occur as a result of divorce death or illness and the important feature is that an attachment was formed but it was broken Rutter suggested that it was the reason behind deprivation rather than deprivation itself and the age at which the deprivation occurred
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