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Dissolved oxygen infers to the volume of oxygen that is contained in water Oxygen enters water through photosynthesis and across the water interface The amount of oxygen that can be held by the water depends on the water pressure salinity and temperature Gas solubility increases with decreasing temperature thus colder water holds more oxygen A reason why freshwater holds more oxygen than does saltwater is because gas solubility increases with decreasing salinity When there is a change in altitude Both the partial pressure and the saturation degree of oxygen will change In addition gas solubility decreases as pressure decreases Therefore the amount of oxygen absorbed in water decreases as altitude increases because of the decrease in relative pressure Smith 1990Once oxygen is absorbed it is inaugurated throughout the water body through internal currents or is lost in the system Flowing water has high dissolved oxygen levels than is stagnant water because of the water movement at the air-water interface In flowing water oxygen-rich water at the surface is constantly being replaced by water containing less oxygen because of turbulence This creates a greater potential for exchange of oxygen across the air-water interface The upper layer of oxygen-rich water tends to stay at the surface because stagnant water undergoes less internal mixing resulting in lower dissolved oxygen levels throughout the water column Oxygen losses occur when water temperatures rise when plants and animals respire and when microbes aerobically decompose organic matter Smith 1990 Dissolved oxygen may play a large role in the survival of biota in temperate lakes and reservoirs during the summer months This is because of stratification Seasonal stratification occurs as a result of waters temperature-dependent density As water temperatures increase the density decreases Therefore the sun-warmed water will remain at the surface of the water body while the more dense cooler water sinks to the bottom The layer of rapid temperature change separating the two layers is called the thermocline At the beginning
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