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Down Syndrome a chromosome abnormality is present in all ethnicity social economic classes and gender In Britannicacom Down Syndrome is defined as a congenital disorder by an extra chromosome on the chromosome 21 pair Although there are many theories that have been forwarded for the cause of chromosome abnormalities there is no known research for the cause of Down Syndrome There are three main types of chromosome abnormalities in Down Syndrome They are Trisomy 21 Mosaic Down Syndrome and Translocation Down Syndrome All three types have similar characteristics and it is known that children with Down Syndrome require more time to master skills such as walking and talking Services however are being provided to educate and help children with this disability In 1866 John Langdon Down wrote an essay describing a particular group of children that had similar features with mental retardation He stated that these children looked liked people from Mongolia therefore referring to them as Mongoloids However in the early 1960s Asian researchers were insulted by the term and changed it to Downs Syndrome Although the term Downs Syndrome is still used in the United Kingdom and some places in Europe in 1970 it was changed to Down Syndrome Human cells normally have 46 chromosomes and divide in two ways The first ordinary cell division is the babys development and is called mitosis In this method one cell splits into two The second method of cell division is called meiosis and this similar to the mitosis method involves one cell to split into two This method however occurs in the ovaries and testicles The most common type of Down Syndrome is Trisomy 21 This type affects about 90 to 95 percent of the people with Down Syndrome This type of syndrome takes place prior to conception and occurs when chromosome 21 does not split This abnormal gamete then joins with a normal gamete at conception and forms a fertilized egg with three 21
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