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The police are known to be intimidating influential and authoritative The reaction of civilians to the police intervening with them or their direct orders can vary with individuals A study was done in 1981 in Minneapolis to find out if the act of arresting or the threat to arrest all domestic violence offenders or possible offenders deters further crime Four different cities were used in this experiment Milwaukee Omaha Dade County in Florida and Colorado Springs Three different strategies were used by the police arresting the suspect ordering the suspect from the premises for 24 hours and trying to restore order Berk 1992 Lawrence W Sherman and Douglas A Smith have written an article in the American Sociological Review which states that despite deterrence theories arrest had no overall crime reduction effect in repeat domestic violence offenders Neither race nor record of prior arrests proves any effect of restrain for further domestic violence Sherman 1992 Subsequently Richard Berk Alec Campbell Ruth Klap and Bruce Western all from the University of California Los Angeles wrote an article that promotes that arresting an offender does have diversified effects Depending on their racial background employment and previous arrest records increased crime did occur Sherman from a previous article 1984 p78 explains that people who are more socially bonded people are more deterrable which suggests that people who are unemployed not married or not happily married may be more unlikely to be deterred by an arrest This is possibly because a socially bonded person might show stronger effects of wanting to stay outside of a jail while a person who isnt as socially bonded might show less of restraint to be incarcerated Smith p681 Sherman and Smith form General Deterrence Hypotheses about the interaction between legal and informal threats of punishment The first is a conditional hypotheses the second a replacement hypothesis and finally the additive hypothesis The conditional hypothesis claims that legal threats only deter
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