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In the decades following the Civil War the United States emerged as an industrial giant Old industries expanded and many new ones including petroleum refining steel manufacturing and electrical power emerged Railroads expanded significantly bringing even remote parts of the country into a national market economy America was the ideal placeIn the late 1800s people in many parts of the world decided to leave their homes and immigrate to the United States Fleeing crop failure a shortage in land and employment rising taxes and famine many came to the U S because it was perceived as the land of economic opportunity Others came seeking personal freedom or relief from political and religious persecution With hope for a brighter future nearly 12 million immigrants arrived in the United States between 1870 and 1900 During the 1870s and 1880s the vast majority of these people were from Germany Ireland Russian Italy and EnglandImmigrants entered the United States through several ports Those from Europe generally came through East Coast facilities while those from Asia generally entered through West Coast centers More than 70 percent of all immigrants however entered through New York City which came to be known as the Golden Door Throughout the late 1800s most immigrants arriving in New York entered at the Castle Garden depot near the tip of Manhattan In 1892 the federal government opened a new immigration-processing center on Ellis Island in New York harbor Although immigrants often settled near ports of entry a large number did find their way inland Many states especially those with sparse populations actively sought to attract immigrants by offering jobs or land for farming Many immigrants wanted to move to communities established by previous settlers from their homelands Once settled immigrants looked for work There were never enough jobs and employers often took advantage of the immigrants Men were generally paid less than other workers and women less than men Social tensions were also part of the
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