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Background After a normal person ingests food the intricate carbohydrates of the food are broken down to glucose a simple sugar which is absorbed into the blood stream This triggers certain cells in the pancreas to release tiny amounts of insulin which takes glucose from the blood into each of the cells that make up the bodys various tissues and organs Insulin also helps to burn up the sugar within the cells releasing the energy required to sustain vital functions Without insulin it is extremely difficult for glucose in the blood to be used by the bodys cells as energy Conversely an abundance of insulin increases the rate at which glucose is used by the cells and therefore lowers the amount of glucose left in the bloodstream Early this century medical scientists found that an insufficiency of insulin a natural hormone caused diabetes Diabetes is one of the most common chronic diseases The most abundant form of the disease is Non-Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus NIDDM or Type 2 diabetes This occurs when the body still produces insulin but either produces insufficient amounts or the insulin that is produced does not function properly The other form of the disease Insulin Dependent Diabetes Mellitus IDDM or Type 1 diabetes is rare This occurs when the pancreatic cells that produce insulin are not present or not functioning Introduction Vanadium is a naturally occurring metallic element found everywhere It appears as number 23 on the periodic table Its common names include vanadium vanadyl sulfate vanadate vanadium salts and vanadate compounds Vanadium can exist in six oxidation states from -1 to 5 Vanadium can also form polymers which are compounds formed from repeating units The chemistry of vanadium can be very complicated but the compounds are striking for their varied colors In animals and humans the most important forms of vanadium are the 4 and 5 forms In the body the 4 form occurs as VO2 the vanadyl
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