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Xerox case study The Xerox Corporation with headquarters in Stamford Connecticut was founded in 1906 in Rochester New York as the Haloid Company a manufacturer of photographic paper In 1947 the Haloid Company obtained the license to Chester Carlsons basic xerographic patents from the Battelle Development Corporation of Columbus Ohio Through the remainder of the 1940s and the 1950s it perfected and marketed the first xerographic copying machines With the introduction of the plain paper copier in 1959 Xerox invented a new industry and launched itself on a decade of spectacular growth In 1961 the company name was changed to the Xerox Corporation and was listed on the New York stock exchange Between the 1970s and 1980s companys revenues and sales flattened In concern for its maturing technology and growing competition Xerox management began to diversify into new businesses By the 1980s insurance and financial services sectors accounted for a quarter of Xeroxs total revenues The Xerox name was synonymous with office copying Protected by patents Xerox had a rapidly growing market to itself As a result Xerox lost sight of the customer providing an opening for competitors to attack the companys dominant share of the market Having ignored low-end competition Xerox faced a battle for survival Japanese firms sold high-quality low priced copiers through office products dealers and retailers and supplied products to American copier-marketing companies Xerox begun studying other companies to see how they ran similar operations Critical areas like design production inventory management supplier relations and staff functions were analyzed In administrative areas Xerox chose non-competitive companies like PG in marketing and L L Bean in distribution that were the best in their fields Fuji Xerox 5050 joint venture in Japan evaluated Japanese competitors Xerox management responded with a competitive benchmarking strategy that required each functional area to compare itself to the best counterpart outside Xerox Xerox revenues had remained flat since 1990 Paul Allaire Xerox Corporations
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