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Sports with the highest occurance of shin splints are long distance running jogging sprinting race walking cross country skiing soccer and volleyball There are numerous theories to why athletes are plagued by shin splints medial tibial stress syndrome Some of these include non-supportive shoes in combination with running on hard surfaces which causes excessive force reduction and absorption by the lower leg musculature and joint structures instead of the environment These force-reducing muscles are usually weak and their limitations results in forces being transmitted to the bony structures for reduction not the soft tissues Also recurring strain to the tendons may result in microtears at the origins or insertions of the muscles or tendons15 Over training can also create chronic swelling in the lower leg compartments thus leading tissue damage in the musculature of the lower leg 13 Shin Splints is a generic term which can be broken down into three different categories Anterior Compartment Syndrome Posterior Compartment Syndrome and Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome Anterior Compartment Syndrome is generally caused by repetitive walking or running on hard surfaces wearing shoes with poor shock absorption qualities The muscles involved are the tibialis anterior extensor hallucis longus and extensor digitorum longus These three muscles all act to dissipate forces on heel strike and the tibialis anterior is active during 85 of the running cycle Unless the athlete is properly conditioned this will lead to fatigue and injury of the dorsiflexors Pain to touch will be present along the anterior tibialis muscles vertical placement 15 The Posterior Compartment Syndrome is often displayed in athletes who excessively pronate resulting in injury to the musculature supporting the medial longitudinal arch The tibialis posterior flexor hallucis longus and the flexor digitorum longus muscles are often affected An athlete may exhibit pain or weakness with plantar flexion and inversion of the ankle and also palpable pain deep to the achillies tendon 15 Medial Tibial Stress Syndrome is characterized
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