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Discuss critically the double identities of the 2nd and 3rd generations of the North Many of the North Koreans in Japan associate themselves with Chongryun Chongryun is a North Korean organization-the General Association of Korean Residents in Japan Chongryun was founded in 1955 and identifies its members and potential members as overseas nationals of North Korea with a strict non-involvement policy with Japans internal affairs For Chongryun Koreans their Korean identity means a primarily a North Korean political identity which they adjust according to present political conditions Chongryun consists of a number of associations that are affiliated with the main organization They also have a bank and school system Children are exposed to Chongryun its way of life and ideology through its schooling system Chongryun has one university twelve high schools fifty-six middle schools and eighty-one primary schools The first language of Chongryun Koreans who are born in Japan is Japanese However the lessons in the schools are taught exclusively in Korean with the exception of the foreign language classes such as Japanese and English The schools teach about North Korea and the children are taught that they are overseas nationals of North Korea Children and their parents decide whether they want their students to continue to study in Chongryun schools or enter Japanese schools While many second generation Chongryun students continued through the university some of the third generation and their second generation parents are entering the Japanese schooling system The Korean language that schoolchildren speak is primarily text-dependent-a formal written form is spoken rather than daily Korean This is because the schools do not teach how to speak daily Korean and instead teach how to read and write correct sentences Because of this some Chongryun Koreans feel that they cannot adequately speak Korean like a native Korean and so that the future generations should stick with Japanese since they are living in Japanese society Both second and third generation Chongryun Koreans
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