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Levels of Processing and Memory 1 Abstract Craik and Lockhart 1972 developed a theory in which they discussed the levels of processing The theory states the more a word is processed due to its meaning the better the word is retained In our experiment we presented subjects with a yes or no question pertaining to the meaning of a word or the appearance of a word and then measured their reaction time Subjects were then asked to recall as many words that they could remember results showed that there was a significant difference in reaction times and the number of words that were recalled Introduction According to Dewey Rundus 1971 the more an item is rehearsed the higher the probability the item will be remembered Herman Ebbinghaus 1885 concluded that in order to remember and learn items we must repeat them He developed the nonsense syllable which is a word that is composed of two consonants with a vowel in between A nonsense syllable could not be a real word would not be found in the dictionary Ebbinghaus wanted to minimize the effects of association that have already been made with words that we are familiar with Using nonsense syllables he determined that frequency of appearance is directly Levels of Processing and Memory 2 correlated with the amount one recalls Lundin 1996 The rehearsal theory states that recall should mimic reaction time in our experiment The longer a word is kept in mind the better it will be recalled Repetition plays an important role in the processes of memory but it is not the only factor that affects how much one can recall Craik and Watkins 1973 disputed that repetition improves memory They performed an experiment to determine that repetition didnt improve memory but that the speed which the words were presented Subjects were read a list of words but before they heard the words they were given a
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