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Word Count: 1,745
Spectatorship in the cinema refers to the relationship between a film its content and how this content is portrayed and the films viewer or spectator The use of the term relationship in cinematic spectatorship applies to the way a spectator acts in response to the content they see in the film Filmmakers when creating a film are often looking for a specific response from their audience For instance the director of a horror film such as Wes Cravens Scream 1996 and William Friedkins The Exorcist 1973 attempt to make their audience scared while directors of comedy films for instance Billy Madison Tamra Davis 1995 and Mrs Doubtfire Chris Columbus 1993 make these films with the intention of making the audience laugh This idea of a specific response from the audience which is encouraged by a film is referred to by Hayward in Key Concepts in Cinema Studies as a preferred reading of a text 333 Cinematic identification is a device used by filmmakers to encourage an audience to become more involved in the narrative and plot and in doing so encourage spectatorship There are two types of cinematic identification primary and secondary Primary identification involves an audiences or spectators identification with the entire film as a whole Secondary identification involves the audience or spectator identifying or relating to a specific character or even a number of characters The concept of spectatorship does not just apply to cinema but across many media formats including television even books The film Sleepless in Seattle Nora Ephron 1993 encourages spectatorship and identification of its audience with use of numerous devices Sleepless in Seattle maintains a number of Hollywood ideologies An ideology is a system of beliefs shared by a particular social group So a Hollywood ideology is a system of beliefs on what they believe to be the norm In Sleepless in Seattle some of the ideologies that are portrayed include the belief that for a person
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