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1890 The state of Mississippi adopts poll taxes and literacy tests to discourage black voters1895 Booker T Washington delivers his Atlanta Exposition speech which accepts segregation of the races1896 The Supreme Court rules in Plessy v Ferguson the separate but equal treatment of the races is constitutional1900-1915 Over one thousand blacks are lynched in the states of the former Confederacy1905 The Niagara Movement is founded by WEB du Bois and other black leaders to urge more direct action to achieve black civil rights1910 National Urban League is founded to help the conditions of urban African Americans1925 Black nationalist leader Marcus Garvey is convicted of mail fraud1928 For the first time in the 20th century an African American is elected to Congress1931 Farrad Muhammad establishes in Detroit what will become the Black Muslim Movement1933 The NAACP files -and loses- its firs suit against segregation and discrimination in education1938 The Supreme Court orders the admission of a black applicant to the University of Missouri Law School1941 A Philip Randoph threatens a massive march on Washington unless the Roosevelt administration takes measures to ensure black employment in defense industries Roosevelt agrees to establish Fair Employment Practices Committee FEPC1942 The congress of Racial Equality CORE is organized in Chicago1943 Race riots in Detroit and Harlem cause black leaders to ask their followers to be less demanding in asserting their commitment to civil rights A Philip Randolph breaks ranks to call for civil disobedience against Jim Crow schools and railroads1946 The Supreme Court in Morgan v The Commonwealth of Virginia rules that state laws requiring racial segregation on buses violates the Constitution when applied to interstate passengers1947 Jackie Robinson breaks the color line in major league baseball1947 To Secure These Rights the report by the Presidents Committee on Civil Rights is released the commission appointed by President Harry S Truman recommends government action to secure civil rights for all Americans1948 President Harry S Truman issues an executive order desegregating the
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