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On November 29 1947 the United Nations voted to divide the Middle Eastern land called Palestine into two independent nations one Arab and one Jewish On May 14 1948 a new nation was born Israel The Jews of Israel and the world celebrated with joy and gladness because for over two thousand years they had hoped to return to the land of their heritage Silverman 1 However with Jews from all around the world returning to Israel the Arabs residing in this land were forced into exile The rebirth of Israel marked the beginning of conflict violence and peace treaties between the Arabs and the Jews of the Middle East Tensions between Jews and Arabs have been present since biblical times in the Middle East In 132 AD when Israel was under Roman rule the Jews revolted and fought for independence In 135 AD the Romans crushed the Jewish revolt and expelled nearly all of the Jews of Israel The Romans then renamed Israel-Palestine so as to remove any connection between the land and the Jewish people Tessler 12 The Jews never forgot their homeland and prayed three times a day to return to Israel and to the holy city of Jerusalem In the 7th century a new religion Islam arose in the Middle East The Muslim Arabs conquered Palestine from the Byzantines and began to settle the land They built the Dome of the Rock and the Al-Aksa mosque in Jerusalem where they believed Prophet Muhammad ascended into heaven to receive parts of the Quran Goldschmidt 46 During the early 1500s Palestine was captured and put under Turkish rule During the First World War the Turkish government placed severe restrictions on Jewish daily life because the Turks believed that the Jews were plotting with their enemies In December of 1917 the British army under the command of General Edmund Allenby defeated the Turks and captured Palestine Four hundred years of Turkish rule
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