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KINGS AND LORDS France England Germany After the year 1000 conditions in Europe again changed-this time for the better The Vikings no longer endangered life and property The Muslims no longer threatened western Europe Instead the European Christians carried war to the Muslim lands in the east with a series of wars for the cross or Crusades But the most important change after 1000 resulted from the success that kings in several countries had in bringing the feudal lords under control and checking private wars France Louis VI 1081-1137-called Louis the Fat-heaved his bulky body into the saddle and personally led campaigns to punish cruel lords who abused their power His grandson Philip 11 1165-1223 or Philip Augustus appointed special officials called bailiffs who traveled within their districts keeping watch on the lords somewhat as Charlemagnes agents had done It is interesting to note that a later king Louis IX 1214-70 found it necessary to appoint other officials to keep check on the bailiffs-watchers to watch the watchmen Louis IX was so religious that the Church in 1297 declared him a saint Louis did his best to see that no man was treated unfairly in his realm He would seat himself beneath a tree and invite anyone who had been unable to get justice from his lord or the regular courts to come and state his case Philip IV 1268-1314 called Philip the Fair because of his fine looks was not so good a man as Saint Louis However he did even more to make the king the real ruler of the kingdom England The kings of England gained greater power over their feudal lords than did the French monarchs This was partly because William I 1027-87 was a duke of Normandy who had won the English crown by conquest He took care that his local lords did not have too much independence or power William the Conqueror
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