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# A History of Mathematics over the Globe

Mathematics study of relationships among quantities magnitudes and properties and of logical operations by which unknown quantities magnitudes and properties may be deduced In the past mathematics was regarded as the science of quantity whether of magnitudes as in geometry or of numbers as in arithmetic or of the generalization of these two fields as in algebra Toward the middle of the 19th century however mathematics came to be regarded increasingly as the science of relations or as the science that draws necessary conclusions This latter view encompasses mathematical or symbolic logic the science of using symbols to provide an exact theory of logical deduction and inference based on definitions axioms postulates and rules for combining and transforming primitive elements into more complex relations and theoremsThis brief survey of the history of mathematics traces the evolution of mathematical ideas and concepts beginning in prehistory Indeed mathematics is nearly as old as humanity itself evidence of a sense of geometry and interest in geometric pattern has been found in the designs of prehistoric pottery and textiles and in cave paintings Primitive counting systems were almost certainly based on using the fingers of one or both hands as evidenced by the predominance of the numbers 5 and 10 as the bases for most number systems today Ancient Mathematics The earliest records of advanced organized mathematics date back to the ancient Mesopotamian country of Babylonia and to Egypt of the 3rd millennium BC There mathematics was dominated by arithmetic with an emphasis on measurement and calculation in geometry and with no trace of later mathematical concepts such as axioms or proofs The earliest Egyptian texts composed about 1800 BC reveal a decimal numeration system with separate symbols for the successive powers of 10 1 10 100 and so forth just as in the system used by the Romans Numbers were represented by writing down the symbol for 1 10 100 and so on as many times as the

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