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Word Count: 995
Since the reign of Emperor Justinian in 542 AD man has one unwelcomeorganism along for the ride Yersinia pestis This is the bacteriummore commonly know as the Black Death the plague Plague is dividedinto three biotypes each associated with one of three major pandemicsoccurring in history Each of these biotypes are then divided into threedistinct types classified by method of infectionThe most widely know is bubonic an infection of plague that residesin the lymph nodes causing them to swell The Black Death of the 14thcentury was mainly of this type Bubonic plague is commonly spreadthrough fleas that have made a meal from an infected Rattus rattusThe most dangerous type of plague is pneumonic It can be spread throughaerosol droplets released through coughs sneezes or through fluidcontact It may also become a secondary result of a case of untreatedbubonic or septicemic plague Although not as common as the bubonicstrain it is more deadly It has an untreated mortality rate on nearly100 as compared to 50 untreated mortality for bubonic plague Itattacks the respiratory track furthering the cycleThe third type of plague is septemic It is spread by direct bodilyfluid contact It may also develop as a secondary result of untreatedbubonic or pneumonic plagueA LITTLE HISTORYAs mentioned before the most known incidence of bubonic plague was in14th century Europe In 1346 reports of a terrible pestilence in Chinaspreading through Mesopotamia and Asia Minor had reached Europe butcaused no concern until two years later In January of 1348 the plaguehad reached Marseille in France and Tunis in Africa By the end of thenext year the plague had reached as far as Norway Scotland PrussiaIceland and Italy In 1351 the infection had spread to include RussiaThe plague was an equal opportunity killer In Avignon nine bishopswere killed King Alfonso XI of Castile succumbed and peasants diedwherever they lay Though the plague had for the most part ceasedless than ten years after it started it killed nearly one third of
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