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Konrad Zuse a German engineer completes the first general purpose progammablecalculator in 1941 He pioneers the use of binary math and boolean logic in electronicColossus a British computer used for code-breaking is operational by December of1943 ENIAC or Electronic Numerical Integrator Analyzor and Computeris developedby the Ballistics Research Laboratory in Maryland to assist in the preparation of firingtables for artillery It is built at the University of Pennsylvanias Moore School ofElectrical Engineering and completed in November 1945 Bell Telephone Laboratories develops the transistor in 1947 UNIVAC the Universal Automatic Computer is developed in 1951 It can store 12000digits in random access mercury-delay lines EDVAC for Electronic Discrete Variable Computer is completed under contract for theIn 1952 GW Dummer a radar expert from the British Royal Radar Establishmentproposes that electronic equipment be manufactured as a solid block with no connectingwires The prototype he builds doesnt work and he receives little support for his research Texas Instruments and Fairchild semiconductor both announce the integrated circuit inThe IBM 360 is introduced in April of 1964 and quickly becomes the standardinstitutional mainframe computer By the mid-80s the 360 and its descendents will havegenerated more than 100 billion in revenue for IBM Texas Instruments and Fairchild semiconductor both announce the integrated circuit inIvan Sutherland demonstrates a program called Sketchpad on a TX-2 mainframe at MITsLincoln Labs in 1962 It allows him to make engineering drawings with a light pen A typical minicomputer costs about 20000 1965 An IC that cost 1000 in 1959 now costs less than 10 Gordon Moore predicts thatthe number of components in an IC will double every year This is known as MooresDoug Engelbart demonstrates in 1968 a word processor an early hypertext system and acollaborative application three now common computer applications Gordon Moore and Robert Noyce found Intel in 1968 Xerox creates its Palo Alto Research Center - Xerox PARC - in 1969 Its mission is toexplore the architecture of information Fairchild Semiconductor introduces a
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