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Word Count: 439
The History of the Mole The moles beginning is traced back to the most basic units of matter atoms Since atoms are extremely small scientists have perplexed a great deal over finding a way to measure atomic mass They struggled to find a universal container that had the capability to mass atoms Measuring the mass of one atom on a balance in grams is not practical because the result in grams is an amount too small to be of any use in the laboratory Fortunately a new idea came about If two or more same amounts of different substances are compared the resulting ratios can be used to deduce atomic mass These atomic mass ratios always remain the same For example one atom of Helium has 112 the mass of one atom of Carbon-12 In this way Helium has an atomic mass of one unit whereas the isotope Carbon-12 has an atomic mass of 12 units Carbon-12 is the standard for atomic mass Eventually a mass spectrometer was invented to determine a single atoms mass even more accurately It measured atomic mass by comparing the time and distance an atom traveled when knocked off its course The invention of the mass spectrometer led to extremely accurate values for single atomic mass Now that the mass of a single atom could be figured the quest for a universal container continued Knowing how much one atom weighs but not how many atoms exist is not very helpful to the chemist A universal container must have the capacity to contain the same number of molecules under the same conditions of pressure temperature and volume Such conditions made the search for a universal container very difficult However an Italian scientist by the name of Avogrado finally solved the dilemma of a container The answer to this scientific puzzle was in the form of a number Avogrados number Avogrados number 602 x 10 is known as the mole
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