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Word Count: 874
The Camera The camera is defined as an apparatus for taking photographs or film or television pictures It is a lightproof box through which an image is focused and recorded on film Today there are many different types of cameras in use all of them more or less advanced versions of the first camera Nearly all of them are made up of the same basic parts -A body the lightproof box -A lens and a shutter to control the amount of light reaching the light-sensitive medium -A viewfinder to frame the scene -A focusing mechanism Still Cameras Focusing and Composing the Scene All cameras use a lens for focusing except for pinhole cameras which focus the image on the film through a tiny hole The focal length of a lens ie the distance between the rear of the lens when focused on infinity and the film determines the angle of view and the size of objects as they appear on the film The image is focused on the film by adjusting the distance between the lens and the film In most 35-mm cameras this is done by rotating the lens With twin-lens reflex and larger view cameras the whole lens and the panel are moved toward or away from the film To view an object for composing nearly every camera has some kind of viewfinder One of the simplest types is a screen that is placed on the back of the camera and replaced by the film in making the exposure This time-consuming procedure is avoided in the modern 35-mm single-lens reflex cameras by placing the screen in a special housing on top of the camera Inside the camera there is a movable mirror that bounces the image from the lens to the screen for viewing and focusing and then flips out of the way when the shutter is tripped so that the image hits the film instead of the mirror
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