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This is another chapter in the book titled The Psychology of Consciousness This chapter examines the variations in consciousness Ornstein proposes that an individuals consciousness goes through numerous changes each day There are daily changes in biological rhythms borderline states between sleep and dreams sleep and wakefulness and daydreamsEach day we each experience a basic biologic rhythm referred to as circadian Many factors influence this rhythm light-dark cycle sun position work hours and mealtimes If these factors are altered then our circadian rhythm can be alteredDaydreams usually occur when outside events are boring automatized or unchanging It is then that our consciousness tunes out the outside world and tunes in an inside world During daydreams we lose consciousness of the external world and therefore our effectiveness is altered During daydreaming our thoughts are more free flowing and unaltered This makes us more receptive to new ideas and courses of actions as well as more able to reflect on our faults and mistakes Each of us undergoes a radical alteration in our consciousness each day during sleep The outside world is shut off and our consciousness is generated from within During sleep we continue to have conscious experiences called dreams There are four stages of sleep that can be studied by the use of three different physiological measures The EEG the EOG electro-oculogram records movement of the eye and the EMG electromyogram measures muscle tension The first stage of sleep is referred to as relaxed wakefulness It last only a few minutesThe second stage of sleep is marked by sleep spindles Movement of the eyes is minimal There is an increase of delta waves on the EEGWhen 20 to 50 percent of the waves recorded during sleep are delta waves stage three of sleep has been reached When delta waves reach over 50 percent the deepest stage of sleep stage four has been reached During these stages there are no eye movements and EMG activity is
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