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FASCISM Fascism was an totalitarian political movement that developed after 1919 as a reaction against the political and social changes brought about by World War 1 and the spread of socialism and communism It flourished between 1919 and 1945 in several countries mainly Germany Spain Italy and Japan Fascism is a form of totalitarian dictatorship that had ideals such as extreme nationalism economic self sufficiency and military strength The dictators abolished all opposition against them and basically took complete control of the lives of everyone in their country Benito Mussolini was the founder of Italian Fascism and premier of Italy from 1922-43 and ruling as a dictator from about 1925 In 1919 Mussolini and other veterans from the war founded a revolutionary nationalistic group called the Fasci di Combattimento in Milan His movement gained the support of many landowners in the lower Po valley industrialists and army officers Fascist blackshirt squads carried on local civil was against Socialists Communists Catholics and Liberals On Oct 28 1922 after the Fascists had marched on Rome Mussolini secured a mandate from King Victor Emmanual lll to form a coalition government In 1925-26 after a lengthy crisis with parliament he imposed a single party totalitarian dictatorship In his new corporate-state employers and workers were organized into party-controlled groups representing different sectors of the economy The system preserver capitalism and expanded social services but abolished free trade unions and the right to strike He ended a half century of friction between the church and the state with the Lateran pacts with the Vatican in 1929 He also defied the League of Nations and conquered Ethiopia in 1935 This won him acclaim in almost every sector of the general public His popularity declined after he sent troops to help General Franco in the Spanish Civil War linked Italy to Nazi Germany enacted anti-Jewish laws and invaded Albania After a seers of military disasters in Greece and North Africa the leaders
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