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Stella Ting-Toomey looked at intercultural interaction including conflict and negotiation along with Hofstedes notion of individualism versus collectivism and Halls ideas of low and high context assumptions to come up with her Facework Theory Cocroft T-T Face-JapanUS Facework refers to the ways particular communicative moves speak to the identity claims of self and other in specific social situations and while face concerns are not necessarily focal they are always immanent Ting-Toomey Chall Of Facework 325 When any person is teased or attacked verbally that person will automatically feel the need to save face This age-old term of saving face goes hand in hand with the idea of losing face It is these ideas of losing and saving face and how different cultures deal with these happenings that the Facework theory attempts to explain The Facework negotiation theory bases itself in the idea of conflict which can be understood as an arisen situation that demands active Facework management Ting-Toomey ICS 213 from the persons involved This theory uses 32 propositions that try to describe and explain cross-cultural conflict problems and Facework strategies under the assumptions that people in all cultures negotiate in conflicts using the idea of face When dealing with face negotiation in conflicts many theorists overlook a very important factor This factor that Ting-Toomey helped bring to light is the idea of cultural variability Cocroft T-T Face-JapanUS 472 She stated that the idea of culture should be looked at when explainingdescribingpredicting conflict management and someones ideas of face because these things are shaped and influenced by the norms and social values of their particular culture That is when looking at a conflict between two people one must take into account what culture each person is part of because everything each person believes values and accepts as social norms is shaped by their individual cultures Cocroft T-T Face-JapanUS 472-4 This idea is stretched further by Ting-Toomey The two basic types of cultures can be
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