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Tapeworm InfestationCausative agent Tapeworms are parasitic Helmiths of the Phylum PlatyhelminthesFlatworms and ClassCestodes They include Taenia saginata beef tapeworm Taenia solium pork tapeworm andDiphyllobothriumlatum and Echinococcus granulosus Anatomy Scolex head with suckers sometimes hooks Proglottids -body segmentscontinuously produced bythe scolex which contain both testes and ovaries that mature as they move away from scolexto produce eggs Taenia tapeworms can live up to 25 yrs and grow to 18 ft D latum have been found aslong as 32 ft and canproduce millions of eggs per day Tapeworms lack a digestive system but obtain food byabsorbing it through theircuticle Diseases and Symptoms Usually none at all - in fact infection might never be known Cancause blockage indigestive tract appendicitis If the eggs hatch in a human the larvae may cross theintestinal lining and enter thebloodstream migrate to different organs in the body and develop into cysticerci 5 mm -8 in D latum larvae thatinfect people are called plerocercoids Depending on location and number of cysticercipathology can result ExCysticerosis- Taenia genus eyes - blindness spinal chord - paralysis brain -neurocysticerosis with similarsymptoms to brain tumor causing traumatic neurological damage Persons of Sandinavianheritage are susceptible Diphyllobothriasis - D latum Abdominal distention flatulence cramping diarrhea andsometimes anemiaparasite has a high affinity for vitamin B12Hydatidosis -E granulosus Instead of cysticerci egg develops into a hyatid cyst Havebeen found largeenough to contain four gallons of fluid Damage is due to cysts large size in vulnerableareas brain bone or ruptureof cysts leading to development of many daughter cysts Rupture may cause anaphylacticshock Infection is mostoften seen in people who raise sheep or hunttrap animalsDiagnosis Identification of eggs or proglottids in feces immunologic tests radiologictests CAT MRI to diagnosepresence of cysticerciProphylaxis meat inspection cooking meat thoroughly treat non-pathogenic casestheraputically to avoid spread ofdisease better personal hygiene avoid use of human sewage as fertilizerTreatment T saginata T solium and Dlatum - Niclosamide or Praziquantel D latum -surgical removal ofhyatid cyst E granulosus - AlbendazoleTapeworm
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