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Background Information Binet defined intelligence as the capacity 1 to find and maintain a definite direction or purpose 2 to make necessary adaptations-that is strategy adjustments -to achieve that purpose and 3 for self-criticism so that necessary adjustments in strategy can be made Binets two principles of test construction were age differentiation and general mental ability Age differentiation refers to the fact that with increasing age children develop their abilities Thus older children have greater abilities that do younger ones Spearman developed his own theory of general metal ability or g based on the idea that a single general factor underlies all intelligence Modern theorists have taken this concept further in gf-gc theory in which there are two basic types of intelligences fluid gf and crystallized gc Mental age is a unit of measurement for expressing the results of intelligence tests The concept was introduced in the second revision of the Binet scale in 1908 A subjects mental age is based on his or her performance compared with the average performance of individuals in a specific chronological age group For example if a 6-year-old child can perform tasks that an average 8 year old can do then the 6-year-old child is said to have a mental age of 8 Like mental age the intelligence quotient IQ is a unit of measure for expressing the results of intelligence tests Introduced in the Terman 1916 Stanford-Binet revision of the Binet scale the IQ is a ratio score Specifically the IQ is the ratio of the subjects mental age as determined by his or her performance on the intelligence scale and chronological age This ratio is the multiplied by 100 to eliminate fractions The Deviation IQ as used in the Stanford-Binet Scale is a standard scare with a mean on 100 and a standard deviation of 16 The most recent revisions of the Binet scale the fourth edition was released in 1986 The modern Binet consists of 15
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