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Edmund Burke had traditional conservative views He said that because of the profound tendency toward irrational behaviour on the part of humans guidance and direction from traditional authorities is needed in order for society to enjoy peace and stability He argued that traditional authorities should pass on long-standing moral teachings through the family religious institutions and governmental laws and insisted that compliance with traditional morality is more important than individual liberty In other words people should not have the freedom to violate moral precepts Thomas Paines own faith was centred in the belief of an eternally existing God and of a universe governed by law while his religion was summarised in his famous sentence My country is the world and my religion is to do good As his religion transcended the formal professions of any cult or sect he refused to accept the creed of any church My mind is my church he said and churches are but human inventions set up to enslave mankind and monopolise power and profit Due to these beliefs he was called an infidel even though he believed in God French philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau believed that ancient conceptions of human nature were incorrect and a barrier to human happiness Human beings were born good What makes them bad is an artificial corrupt and depraved society If human beings at birth were given freedom from societys corrupt influences they would grow up to be good noble unselfish cooperative and possess all other human virtues Thomas Hobbes depicted human nature as violent and warlike in his 17th century work Leviathan Life is uncertain he said because of the human tendency to commit innumerable acts of aggression against persons and property Thus without a strong state to control these aggressive tendencies violence becomes a way of life John Locke was an English philosopher who is often credited with being the originator of liberalism According to Locke what we learn from a study of
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