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Word Count: 654
Cesare Beccaria is one of the most famous criminal justice theorists of all time He lived from 1738 to 1794 He was the eldest son of an Aristocratic Family and was educated in a Jesuit school His fascination with philosophy lead to him a bunch of friends who soon formed a group called the academy of fists This group focused their attention on reforming the criminal justice system This group exposed Beccaria to many great philosophers who encouraged his work One to his motivators was a philosopher named Pietro who was in favor of the idea protesting against torture to obtain confession for the law and justice system As well as many other injustices going on such as the wrongfully used discretionary power of judges using personal connections to get lighter sentences and capital punishment This point of view won the backing of many other great European Emperors and philosophers By 1770 Beccaria had gained recognition from all over the world and political positions in Italy Beccarias work touched on two distinct arguments of position He described and pushed the point of reforming the criminal justice system He also realized that very few studies had been done on research and reform in the system He agreed with two philosophers theories social contract and utility In retrospect to social contract Beccaria pointed towards punishment as justified only to defend the social contract of citizens and to make sure that all persons followed this standard In regards to utility Beccaria stressed that the method of punishment selected should be one that helps the public In his efforts to direct the justice system he discovered that some philosophers had two principle theories justifying punishment Number one on the list was retributive approach which states that punishment should be equal to the crime In other words an eye for an eye This method falls into a revengeful style of punishment The second theory was Utilitarianism approach which states that
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