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Basic CPU Architecture All processors since the humble 8086 operate along similar principles using a basic fetch-decode-execute procedure Before going on to look at real-world processors like the Pentium and the Athlon and their associated complexities we will look at BORIS - Beginners Optimised Reduced Instruction Set processor Beginners Optimised Reduced Instruction Set BORIS The basic architecture of BORIS is shown in Figure 1 The BORIS processor contains all the basic components required for a CPU including 61656Arithmetic and Logic Unit ALU 61656Control Unit 61656Timing and control circuits 61656Temporary Registers The Arithmetic and Logic Unit is the part of the Central Processing Unit CPU which performs operations such as addition subtraction and multiplication of integers and bit-wise AND OR NOT XOR and other Boolean operations The CPUs instruction decode logic determines which particular operation the ALU should perform the source of the operands and the destination of the result The width in bits of the words which the ALU handles is usually the same as that quoted for the processor as a whole whereas its external busses may be narrower Floating-point operations are usually done by a separate floating-point unitFPU Some processors use the ALU for address calculations eg incrementing the program counter PC others have separate logic for this The Control Unit is literally in control It takes its timing from the clock and is responsible for performing the machine-cycle which is fetch decode execute and store It ensures that instructions and data are retrieved from the right place and that data is stored in the right place It instructs the ALU as to which arithmetic or logical operations it should perform and carries out other operations like deciding in which part of the machine-cycle the processor is currently operating The internal operation of the CPU is timed and sequenced by a set of timing and control circuits They also generate external signals such as
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